Unit I

Role and importance of downstream processing in biotechnological processes. An overview of bioseparation; Problems and requirements of bioproduct purification; Characteristics of biological mixtures; Downstream process economics.



Physico-chemical basis of bio-separation processes. Removal of particulate matter; biomass; and insolubles: flocculation and sedimentation; centrifugation and filtration methods; Cell disruption methods; Enrichment Operations: precipitation methods (with salts; organic solvents; and polymers; extractive separations; aqueous twophase extraction; supercritical extraction); adsorption method.


Unit III

Membrane separations: Membrane based separation theory; Types of membranes; Types of membrane processes (Dialysis; Ultrafiltration; microfiltration and Reverse Osmosis). Chromatographic separations: Paper; TLC; Adsorption; Ion exchange; Gel filtration; affinity chromatographic separation processes; GC; HPLC; FPLC; Electrophoretic separation.


Unit IV

Final product polishing and Case studies: Products polishing: Crystallization and drying; Purification of

cephalosporin; aspartic acid; Recombinant Streptokinase; Monoclonal antibodies; Tissue plasminogen activator; Taq polymerase; Insulin.


Suggested readings:

1. Chromatographic and Membrane Processes in Biotechnology by C.A. Costa and J.S. Cabral. Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers

2. Bioseparations: Downstream Processing for Biotechnology by P.A. Belter et al. Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc

3. Bioseparations by P.A. Belter, E.L. Cussler and W.S. Hu. Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

4. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals by J.E. Bailey and D.F. Ollis. Publisher: McGraw-Hill.

5. Downstream Processing by J.P. Hamel, J.B. Hunter and S.K. Sikdar. Publisher: American Chemical Society.