History of plant cell and tissue culture, Culture media; various types of cultures: callus, cell suspension, nurse, root, meristem, In Vitro differentiation: Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis; Molecular basis of plant organ differentiation Micro-propagation– plant multiplication, hardening, transplantation, genetic fidelity, scale up and cost reduction, bioreactor, artificial seeds; Applications of tissue culture: Virus elimination by shoot tip culture.



In vitro pollination and fertilization, Wide hybridization and Embryo rescue, Androgenesis: Anther and pollen culture, Gynogenesis-ovule and ovary culture, dihaploids, their applications in genetics and plant breeding; Somaclonal and gametoclonal variations, In vitro selection. Protoplast isolation and purification; Protoplast viability test; Protoplast culture and regeneration; Somatic hybridization – methods and applications; Cybrids.



Large-scale production of alkaloids and other secondary metabolites through cell culture techniques; high yielding cell lines, factors effecting production, Biotransformation, elicitors induced production, Hairy root culture and production of secondarymetabolites. Immobilization of plant cells.



Plant Genetic resources, Germplasm conservation and cryopreservation, cryoprotectants, Gene bank, Some case studies on success stories on commercial application of plant tissue culture.



1. R.H. Smith, Plant Tissue Culture: Techniques and Experiments, Academic Press, San Diego. 1992.

2. S S Bhojwani and M K Razdan, Plant Tissue Culture, Elsevier Publ.