Nature of Bonding in Organic molecules: Delocalized chemical bonding –conjugation, cross conjugation, resonance, hyperconjugation , tautomerism. Aromaticity in benzenoid and nonbenzenoid compounds, alternant and non-alternant hydrocarbons, Huckel’s rule, energy level of -molecular orbitals, annulenes, antiaromaticity, homo-aromaticity, PMO approach. Bonds weaker than covalent, addition compounds, crown ether complexes and cryptands, inclusion compounds, cyclodextrins, catenanes and rotaxanes



Stereochemistry : Chirality, elements of symmetry, molecules with more than one chiral centre, diastereomerism. Determination of relative and absolute configuration (octant rule excluded) with special reference to lactic acid, alanine & mandelic acid. Methods of resolution, optical purity, prochirality, enantiotopic and diastereotopic atoms, groups and faces, asymmetric synthesis, cram’s rule and its modifications, prelog’s rule, conformational analysis of cycloalkanes (upto six membered rings), decalins, conformations of sugars, optical activity in absence of chiral carbon (biphenyls, allenes and spiranes), chirality due to helical shape, geometrical isomerism in alkenes and oximes, methods of determining the configuration.



Reaction Mechanism: Structure and Reactivity: Types of mechanisms, types of reactions, thermodynamic and kinetic requirements, kinetic and thermodynamic control, Hammond’s postulate, Curtin-Hammett principle. Potential energy diagrams, transition states and intermediates, methods of determining mechanisms, isotope effects. Hard and soft acids and bases. Generation, structure, stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes and nitrenes. Effect of structure on reactivity. The Hammett equation and linear free energy relationship, substituent and reaction constants. Taft equation.



Carbohydrates: Types of naturally occurring sugars, Deoxy sugars, amino sugars, branch chain sugars, general methods of determination of structure and ring size of sugars with particular reference to maltose, lactose, sucrose, starch and cellulose.


Natural and Synthetic Dyes: Various classes of synthetic dyes including heterocyclic dyes, interaction between dyes and fibers, Structure elucidation of indigo and Alizarin.


Books Recommended:

1. Advanced Organic Chemistry- Reactions Mechanism and Structure by Jerry March.

2. A guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry by Peter Sykes.

3. Organic Chemistry by R.T. Morrison and R.N.Boyd.

4. Reaction Mechanism in Organic Chemistry by S.M. Mukherji and S.P. Singh.

5. Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds by D. Nasipuri.

6. Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds by P.S. Kalsi.

7. Carbohydrate by S.P. Bhutani.

8. Organic Chemistry by I.L. Finar.

9. Color Chemistry by R.L.M. Allen.

10. Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes by K. Venkatraman.